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  • Writer's pictureAstra Inspections

Exploring the Split System Air Conditioner: Efficiency, Maintenance and How to Inspect Them




When it comes to cooling our homes, the Split System Air Conditioner stands out as one of the most common and preferred choices for homeowners. This ingenious cooling solution comprises two essential components - the indoor unit and the outdoor unit - offering not only efficiency but also the flexibility to cool individual rooms or multiple zones within a house.


In this comprehensive blog post, we will delve into the inner workings of the Split System Air Conditioner, demystifying the science behind its cooling prowess. From understanding its core components to learning about its refrigerant-based heat transfer process, we'll equip you with the knowledge to appreciate the engineering brilliance that keeps your home comfortably cool.


We'll also explore some of the common problems that may arise with these air conditioners and how you can address them proactively. Regular maintenance is the key to ensuring your system's optimal performance and preventing potential issues that could lead to discomfort and costly repairs.


Whether you are a seasoned homeowner with a split system air conditioner or a curious first-time buyer looking for the perfect cooling solution, this blog post has you covered. By the end of our journey, you'll not only grasp the mechanics of your cooling companion but also gain valuable insights on how to keep it running smoothly for years to come.


The most common home air conditioning system is the Split System Air Conditioner. It consists of two main components: an indoor unit and an outdoor unit. This type of system is widely used in residential settings due to its efficiency, ease of installation, and ability to cool individual rooms or multiple zones within a home.


This is how the Split System Air Conditioner works:


1. Indoor Unit: is typically installed on an interior wall of the room you want to cool. It contains the evaporator coil, a fan, and air filters. The warm indoor air is drawn into the unit by the fan.


2. Outdoor Unit: is installed outside the house, often on the ground or mounted on a wall. It contains a condenser coil, a compressor, and a fan. The outdoor unit dissipates the heat extracted from the indoor air.


These are the main components of the system, but they are not unique to the split system, they are part of most modern air-conditioners:


Refrigerant: The system uses a refrigerant to transfer heat from inside to outside. As the warm indoor air is blown over the evaporator coil, the refrigerant inside absorbs the heat, transforming it into a low-pressure, low-temperature gas.


Compressor: The refrigerant, now in a gaseous state, is compressed by the compressor in the outdoor unit. This process increases its temperature and pressure, turning it into a high-pressure, high-temperature gas.


Condenser Coil: The high-pressure, high-temperature refrigerant gas is then passed through the condenser coil in the outdoor unit. The outdoor fan helps dissipate the heat, allowing the refrigerant to condense back into a high-pressure liquid.


Expansion Valve: The high-pressure liquid refrigerant is sent back indoors through the expansion valve, where it undergoes a pressure drop. This causes the refrigerant to become a low-pressure, low-temperature liquid-gas mixture.


Evaporator Coil: The low-pressure, low-temperature refrigerant enters the indoor unit and passes through the evaporator coil. As warm indoor air is blown over the cold evaporator coil, the refrigerant absorbs the heat, cooling the air in the process.


The cooled air is then distributed back into the room, while the now-warmed refrigerant returns to the outdoor unit to start the process again.


The split system air conditioner allows for individual temperature control in different rooms or zones, making it energy-efficient since you can cool only the areas that need it. Additionally, it offers relatively quiet operation and a sleek design that fits well with modern interiors.


Air conditioners are often outdoors and exposed to extreme temperatures throughout the year, which shortens their life expectancy. Modern air conditioners can still last between 15-20 years.


Common Problems of the Split-system Air Conditioner


Split system air conditioners, like any other mechanical device, can experience issues over time. Some common problems that may arise with split-system air conditioners include:


- Refrigerant Leaks: A refrigerant leak can cause the air conditioner to lose cooling capacity and efficiency. It may result in the unit blowing warm air or taking longer to cool the room.


- Frozen Evaporator Coil: If the airflow over the evaporator coil is restricted due to a clogged air filter or a faulty blower fan, the coil may freeze. This can lead to reduced cooling and potential water leakage when the ice melts.


- Electrical Problems: Electrical issues, such as damaged wiring or a malfunctioning thermostat, can prevent the air conditioner from turning on or maintaining the desired temperature.


- Clogged Drainage System: The split system air conditioner has a drainage system to remove condensate. If the drain line or drain pan gets clogged, it can cause water to leak inside the house.


- Issues with the Outdoor Unit: Problems with the outdoor unit, such as a malfunctioning compressor, fan motor, or condenser coil, can lead to poor cooling performance or complete system failure.


- Inadequate Cooling: If the air conditioner is too small for the room it's trying to cool, it may struggle to reach the desired temperature on hot days or in large spaces.


- Strange Noises: Unusual noises, such as rattling, buzzing, or grinding sounds, can indicate various issues, such as loose components or a failing motor.


- Sensor Problems: The thermostat sensor inside the indoor unit is responsible for measuring the room temperature. If it is failing, it can cause the air conditioner to behave erratically.


- Dirty or Blocked Filters: Dust and debris can accumulate in the air filters over time, reducing airflow and efficiency. Dirty filters can also lead to decreased indoor air quality. Clean your filters regularly!


- Short Cycling: Short cycling occurs when the air conditioner frequently turns on and off without completing a full cooling cycle. This can waste energy and put extra strain on the system.


You can prevent most of these issues by performing regular maintenance of your split system including cleaning filters, checking refrigerant levels, inspecting electrical connections, and ensuring proper airflow. If you encounter any significant problems, however, it's best to contact a qualified HVAC technician to diagnose and fix the issue properly.


Inspecting a Split-system Air Conditioner


When inspecting a split system, it is crucial to ensure its optimal performance, efficiency, and longevity. Here is a guide on what to inspect:


- Air Filters: Check the air filters in the indoor unit. Dirty filters can restrict airflow, reduce cooling efficiency, and lead to dust and allergen buildup. If the filters and their surroundings are very dirty, it is usually a good indicator, that the system has not been serviced in a long time and it is probably in less-than-ideal condition.


- Condenser Unit: Inspect the outdoor condenser unit for any debris, leaves, or obstructions around it. Excess debris will prevent proper airflow to the unit.


- Condenser Coil: Inspect the condenser coil for dirt, dust, or grime buildup. A dirty coil can impede heat dissipation, leading to reduced cooling performance.


- Refrigerant Lines: Visually inspect the refrigerant lines for any signs of leaks, such as oil stains or greenish residue. Refrigerant leaks can lead to cooling issues and indicate serious problems with the system.


- Drainage System: Check the drainage system for the indoor unit, including the drain pan and the drain line. Make sure there are no blockages or clogs, and that there are no water leaks coming from the unit.


- Thermostat: Test the thermostat settings to ensure it accurately detects the room temperature and communicates with the air conditioner correctly.


- Electrical Connections: Inspect all electrical connections and wiring for signs of damage or wear. Loose or corroded connections can lead to electrical problems and system malfunctions.


- Fan Blades: Visually inspect the fan blades in both the indoor and outdoor units. Make sure they are clean and free of damage. Damaged fan blades can cause noise and reduce airflow.


- Blower Motor: Test the blower motor in the indoor unit to ensure it operates smoothly and delivers the right amount of airflow.


- Settings: Check the control panel settings to ensure all functions are working correctly. Test the different modes (cooling, heating, fan-only, etc.) to verify they are functioning as expected.


- Overall System Performance: Run the air conditioner and observe its performance. Pay attention to any unusual noises, fluctuations in cooling, or signs of inefficiency.



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